Underwater And Maritime Archaeology

Convened By
Mark Staniforth (Australia) and Dolores Elkin (Argentina)

Theme Details
Theme Convenors
Dr Mark Staniforth (Australia) Mark.Staniforth@flinders.edu.au
Dr Dolores Elkin (Argentina) ebarclay@arnet.com.ar

Local Arrangements Chair
Dr Paul Johnston (USA) johnstonpf@nmah.si.edu
Underwater archaeology is a relatively new sub-discipline of archaeology that is just now passing from a pioneering period that spanned the last half of the 20th century. The term underwater archaeology simply refers to the environment in which the practice of archaeology is undertaken. The field of underwater archaeology, and its various aspects, has already made many excellent contributions not only to our understanding of humanity’s interaction with the sea and the maritime environment, but also to our basic understanding of human prehistory and history. Anthropologically oriented archaeology of shipwreck sites has also developed important interpretations. However, the potential of underwater archaeology to substantially augment our understanding of humanity and the past remains substantially unfulfilled as a result of problems that include unresolved conflict with treasure hunters, the lack of consistent public outreach and hence a lack of public appreciation and support, and the simple relative youth of the discipline. In addition the technical difficulties and high cost of research, the difficulties of access and effective protection, as well as rapid technological change, are challenges that when met could provide significant opportunities and results.

Underwater archaeology – is the systematic study of past human life, behaviours, activities and cultures using the physical (or material) remains (including sites, structures and artefacts) as well as other evidence found in the underwater (or submerged) environment. Such evidence may exist beneath fresh (or inland) waters or beneath salt (or marine) waters. It may be visible on the bed of the water body (ie. seabed) or buried beneath the sediment.

Contemporary definitions of underwater archaeology overlap with definitions of:

Maritime archaeology – is the archaeological study of humans and their interactions with the sea and can include sites that are not underwater but that are related to maritime activities such as lighthouses, port constructions or shore-based whaling stations.

Marine archaeology – is the archaeological study of material remains created by humans that are submerged in the marine (or saltwater) environment including material such as submerged aircraft.

Nautical archaeology – is the archaeological study of ships and shipbuilding. Like maritime archaeology it can include sites that are not underwater but that are related to ships and shipbuilding including ship burials, shipwreck remains in the terrestrial environment or shipbuilding yards.

The scope of underwater and maritime archaeology

Underwater archaeological sites may consist of the remains of ships (shipwrecks), boats (boat finds), other watercraft or vessels and aircraft as well as cultural material that was accidentally dropped, lost overboard or deliberately deposited into the water body. It also includes the remains of structures that were originally built wholly or partly underwater (such as fish traps, crannogs, bridges, piers, jetties and wharves) as well as the remains of human activity that originally took place on dry or marshy land that has subsequently been inundated, either by rising water levels or by marine (or fluvial) erosion.

The aims of underwater and maritime archaeology

The aims of underwater archaeology (including marine, maritime and nautical archaeology) are to integrate archaeological data and interpretation into the broader study of the human past, emphasising not only materials from submerged sites, but also from maritime activities, arguably one of the more universal human endeavours. Inasmuch as two-thirds of the earth is covered by water, many human civilisations have turned to the sea, lakes, and rivers for sustenance, transportation, and warfare. To obtain as complete an understanding of the past as possible, archaeological reconstructions of the past, as well as anthropological interpretations of human behaviour, must include information derived from submerged or underwater sites.

The aims of archaeologists working in this field, over the next century, will focus on better integration of their data and interpretation with the wider professional community, better dissemination of their research to the public, combating treasure hunting and commercial salvage of archaeologically significant shipwrecks, and adapting to the late 20th century development of new technologies that have unlocked the potential to discover, examine, excavate or plunder sites at any depth in the ocean.

The protection, preservation and investigation of underwater cultural heritage

One of the principle issues faced by national governments is how to seriously and effectively address the protection, preservation and investigation of submerged cultural heritage. Therefore this theme proposes to address topics including Underwater archaeology in developing countries: problems and solutions for research, conservation and management. Based on our own experiences in Argentina and Australia, and also knowing what is going on in other countries in South and Central America – as well as in Asia and Africa – there are many problems that we have in common and that represent a serious obstacle for the development of underwater and maritime archaeology. However, and again based on real experience, we are optimistic and convinced that there are different possible solutions to most, if not all, of those problems. One of the main keys is precisely to develop networks of people and institutions from all over the world working or wanting to work in (serious) underwater archaeology. WAC 5 can provide an ideal framework to foster that.

The most common mechanism by which underwater archaeological sites and artefacts throughout the world are protected is underwater cultural heritage legislation. In 1982 the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) provided that “States have the duty to protect objects of an archaeological and historical nature found at sea and shall cooperate for this purpose”. All national and/or state/provincial governments have the right to enact legislation and regulations for the protection and preservation of underwater cultural heritage lying in or under their internal waters, territorial seas and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Some national governments also claim to retain title to (or ownership of) ship and aircraft wrecks that once formed a part of that nation’s military forces (Army, Navy or Air force). Their assertion is that these property rights are not lost to that government due to the passage of time and apply whether the vessel or aircraft was lost in national, foreign or international waters.

In recent years many countries have enacted cultural heritage legislation for the protection of shipwrecks and other items of underwater cultural heritage in their internal waters and territorial seas. In addition the deep ocean is littered with cultural material, which lies beyond the territorial seas, and therefore the jurisdiction, of individual nation states. Underwater archaeological activity must conform to all of the legislative and administrative requirements of the nation or state/province within whose internal waters, territorial seas or EEZ the work is being conducted. It should also take into consideration international conventions and guidelines for the protection and management of the underwater cultural heritage including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), ILA International Convention on the Underwater Cultural Heritage, ICOMOS International Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage and the UNESCO Draft Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (now completed). Furthermore underwater and maritime archaeologists should be guided by codes of practice and codes of ethics such as the ICOM Code of Professional Ethics and the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA) Code of Ethics.

The UNESCO Draft Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage is now in its final stages and is expected to be ratified by UNESCO before WAC5 meets in 2003. The ratification of the UNESCO Draft is expected to be the most important development in Underwater and Maritime Archaeology in recent years and it is expected to fundamentally change the way in which national governments address the protection, preservation and investigation of their submerged cultural heritage. WAC5 provides the perfect venue for international discussions of a range of issues from teaching the next generation of maritime and underwater archaeologists to effective methods of protecting and preserving underwater cultural heritage.


Maritime Archaeology In The Indian Ocean And Adjacent Regions

Organized By
Brian Williams (Northern Ireland), Paul Lane (Kenya) and Somasiri Devendra (Sri Lanka)

Session Details
Dr. Brian Williams (Northern Ireland) brian.williams@doeni.gov.uk
Dr. Paul Lane (Kenya) pjlane@insightkenya.com
Somasiri Devendra (Sri Lanka) devemari@slt.lk

Brian Williams (Northern Ireland)
Dr Brian Williams is responsible for maritime archaeology in Northern Ireland and is Principal Inspector in the government agency Environment and Heritage Service in Belfast. He is the Joint Director of the Centre for Maritime Archaeology and Visiting Professor at the University of Ulster. Brian is a land archaeologist by background and spent 20 years involved in excavations and surveys on land in Northern Ireland before being given the maritime responsibility. He represents his agency on the Advisory Committee on Historic Wrecks and on the Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee, both in London. He is a Director of the US Advisory Committee on Underwater Archaeology, is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and an Honorary Lecturer at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. He has been involved in establishing a programme of international research into the maritime archaeology of the Swahili culture on the East African coast involving the British Institute in East Africa, the National Museums of Kenya and the University of Ulster.

Paul Lane (Kenya)
Dr Paul Lane is Director of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, based at its offices in Nairobi. Paul is an archaeologist who works mainly on sites on land, but has practical experience on various types of underwater sites off Denmark, Greece, Australia, Kenya and the UK, and has a long standing interest in maritime archaeology. In his current post he has been seeking to develop partnerships with various scholars and institutions in the region and overseas, so as to help develop sustainable approaches to the investigation and management of the maritime heritage of the Western Indian Ocean. This work also seeks to build on the role played by the BIEA, since its inception over forty years ago, in supporting archaeological and historical research on the Swahili coast. Prior to coming to Kenya, Paul taught at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and the University of Botswana, and at both institutions assisted with the introduction of undergraduate degree programmes in archaeology. He is currently an Honorary Research Fellow at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London.

Somasiri Devendra (Sri Lanka)
Somasiri Devendra graduated from the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya, in 1955 reading History. After a naval career culminating in the appoitment as Commandant of the Naval and Maritime Academy, and a post-naval career he devoted his efforts to the promotion of Maritime Archaeology in Sri Lanka and in researching the structural characteristics of pre-modern watercraft. Regarded as the pioneer in maritime archaeology he has led every project in the country since the mid-1980s. He founded the Maritime Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka and organized an expedition to study in situ, record and rescue a logboat excavated by gem-miners 15 feet below a river-bed. On the invitation of the National Aquatic Resources Agency, he served on the Legal sub-committee of the Inter-ministerial Committee on Shipwrecks which recommended, and indicated guidelines for legislation to protect and manage the maritime cultural heritage. The legislation has passed the draft stage and is awaiting implementation. He served as a national collaborator/team leader of the joint Sri Lanka-British Colombo Reefs Archaeological Survey in 1989, conducted jointly by the Maritime Heritage Trust and the National Aquatic Resources Agency with the National Museum of Wales, with funding by the British Academy, the Royal Geographical Society and the Society for South Asian Studies. In 1989-90 he researched and photo-recorded traditional Dhow-building technology in Sharjah, U.A.E. Since 1992 he has served as Sri Lankan coordinator of the joint Sri Lankan-Australian-Netherlands maritime archaeology programme, with the Western Australian Maritime Museum, the University of Amsterdam and the Amsterdam Historical Museum, aimed at building up a data-base of shipwrecks in Galle harbour and training a core of maritime archaeologists in the country. This work now goes under the name of the “Avondster” Project. He was invited by the government to undertake a rescue archaeology project and a survey of the Bay of Galle before construction of a new port there. He set up, for the National Museums, an Exhibition/Seminar on Sri Lankan watercraft in 2001 He has conducted Cultural Environmental Impact Surveys for two major Port Development Projects in Sri Lanka, in Galle and Colombo. He is a Vice President of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka and serves as Advisor on Maritime Archaeology to the State Department of Archaeology and Consultant and Cordinator of the “Avondster” Project.Since 1993 he has been a member of ICOMOS International Committee on the Underwater Cultural Heritage Inc., (ICUCH)

Theme rationale
This session will look at a range of maritime archaeology projects being undertaken in the various countries around the Indian Ocean and adjacent areas (such as the Red Sea and Persian Gulf). It will provide an opportunity for scholars to share information on their projects and look at linkages between different areas and how the ocean may have provided a means of communication between the regions in the past. Participants are invited to present papers that address the issues of maritime archaeology in the Indian Ocean. Papers should look at the wider issues of maritime archaeology in the Indian Ocean, and not just focus on underwater or ‘shipwreck’ archaeology.
Evolution Through Interaction: The Origins, Evolution And Decline Of Traditional Watercraft Of Sri Lanka
Somasiri Devendra (Sri Lanka) Archaeological potential of near-shore environments in the South Asian region
Ananda Gunatilaka (Sri Lanka)
Investigations At Qalhat: The Archaeology Of An Islamic Port Of The Western Indian Ocean
Tom Vosmer (Director, Oman Maritime Heritage Project) Uncovering the slave ship Meermin. A project to reclaim the hidden heritage of slavery in South Africa
Jaco Boshoff (Iziko, Museums of Cape Town South Africa)
Archaeologies Of The Later Historical Coast Of East Africa
Colin Breen (Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Ulster) Black Assarca Island, the Dahlak Archipelago, and maritime archaeology:
reality and potential
Ralph K. Pedersen (Institute of Nautical Archaeology)
A Model Of Sea-Going Trade In Early Historic Gujarat, India
Nancy Pinto-Orton (Research Associate, University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, USA) Myos: A Roman and Islamic Port on the Red Sea Coast of Hormos/ Quseir al-Qadim Egypt
Lucy Blue (Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Southampton, UK)
The Avondster-Project In Galle, Sri Lanka
Robert Parthesius (The Netherlands)

Session Time
Day Thursday Date 26th June
Time 9am-1pm Room No Details Available

Underwater And Maritime Archaeology In Latin America And The Caribbean

Organized By
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands) and Pilar Luna Erreguerena (Mexico)

Session Details
Dr Margaret Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands) leshdent@candw.ky
Pilar Luna-Erreguera (Mexico) acuatica@prodigy.net.mx

Donald H. Keith (Ships of Discovery) and Matthew Russell (USNPS)

Margaret (Peggy) Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands)
Dr. Margaret Leshikar-Denton serves as Maritime Archaeologist for the Cayman Islands National Museum. The Museum is enlarging a national inventory of shipwreck sites, working to improve legislation, exploring ways to encourage and conduct scientific investigations, considering establishing a maritime heritage trail and shipwreck preserves, and bringing the Museum’s work to the public in exhibitions. Margaret is a member of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) International Committee on Underwater Cultural Heritage, the Society for Historical Archaeology’s (SHA) Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology, and the International Congress of Maritime Museums’ (ICMM) Underwater Archaeology Committee. She served as one of the ICOMOS representatives during the UNESCO meetings in Paris that resulted in the newly adopted UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. She holds a doctorate from Texas A&M University, and is a Research Associate with the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Prior to her work in the Caribbean, she was employed with the Texas Historical Commission. She has participated in fieldwork in the Caribbean, Mexico, United States, Spain and Turkey.

Pilar Luna-Erreguera (Mexico)
Archaeologist Pilar Luna Erreguerena was the founder of the underwater archaeological branch of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), and has been its head since 1980. Since then, she has directed numerous projects in maritime and inland waters that include prehistoric, pre-Hispanic and colonial sites. Over the course of twenty two years, Pilar has been dedicated to consolidating underwater archaeology in her country, raising consciousness about the existence and importance of this portion of the national legacy, forming new generations of underwater archaeologists, and struggling in a constant battle against treasure hunters. Pilar is a member of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) International Committee on Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICUCH) and an Emeritus Member of the Society for Historical Archaeology’s Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology (ACUA). She was one of two delegates representing Mexico at the UNESCO meetings in Paris that resulted in the newly adopted Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. In January 1997, she received the SHA’s Award of Merit, “for pioneering in the recognition, exploration and preservation of the underwater archaeological heritage of Mexico.” She has written numerous articles and given lectures in Mexico and other countries. She holds a masters degree in anthropology from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and a degree in archaeology from the National School of Anthropology and History (ENAH). She has participated in fieldwork in the Caribbean, Central America, and Turkey.

Session rationale
Latin America and the Caribbean have cultural links that unite the regions. Initiatives are underway in some countries to establish institutions or programs to identify, protect, manage and interpret their prehistoric, Pre-Columbian and historical underwater cultural heritage. While problems are commonly encountered, progress is possible. The conveners believe that knowledge encourages protection and appreciation for heritage sites, provides enjoyment and education for the public, and strengthens national and regional identity through promotion of maritime heritage. There is also a growing commitment among some Latin American and Caribbean countries to assist one another in gaining knowledge, technical skills, and professional expertise to accomplish these goals. Our session aims to present the widest possible range of topics relating to underwater cultural heritage in Latin America and the Caribbean to create awareness among participants and the international community.

Session format
The session will include a series of 20-minute presentations (15 minutes each with 5 minutes for questions), and a 20-minute discussant-summary. This will be followed by a two-hour open round-table/panel discussion among participants and audience to address the various situations regarding underwater cultural heritage in each country present and to identify problems and solutions. Our session will include prehistoric, Pre-Columbian and historical underwater cultural heritage, and the wider the range of issues the better.


Edward Harris (Bermuda) drharris@ibl.bm
Nigel Sadler (Turks & Caicos) museum@tciway.tc
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands) musmel@candw.ky
Della Scott-Ireton (Cayman Islands) dscott@mail.dos.state.fl.us
Dorrick Gray (Jamaica) dgray@uwimona.edu.jm
Donny L. Hamilton (Jamaica) dlhamilton@tamu.edu
C. Wayne Smith (USA) silicone@tamu.edu
Wil Nagelkerken (Netherlands Antilles) wnagelke@cura.net
Ray Hayes (Netherlands Antilles) rhayes@fac.howard.edu
Pilar Luna Erreguerena (Mexico) acuatica@prodigy.net.mex
Patricia Meehan Hermanson (Mexico)
Flor Trejo Rivera (Mexico)
Carmen Rojas Sandoval, et.al (Mexico)
Vera Moya Sordo (Mexico)
Roberto Enrique Galindo Domínguez (Mexico)
Arturo González González, et.al (Mexico)
Carmen Rojas & Arturo González, et.al (Mexico)
Antonio Lezama (Uruguay) alezama@montevideo.com.uy
Dolores Elkin (Argentina) ilolnikle@yahoo.com
Considerations On Early 17th Century Spanish Shipbuilding And Its Influence On Nuestra Señora Del Juncal’s Shipwreck
Patricia Meehan Hermanson (INAH, Coordinación Nacional de Restauración del Patrimonio Cultural Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática México) The Jamaican Version: Public Archaeology and the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage
Dorrick Gray (Deputy Technical Director of Archaeology, Jamaica National Heritage Trust)
The Sinking Of The Slave Ship The Trouvadore: Linking The Past To The Present.
Nigel Sadler (Director, Turks and Caicos National Museum) The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) and the Submerged Cultural Heritage in Mexico
Pilar Luna Erreguerena (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática, México)
Development Of Maritime Archaeological Tourism Using The Wreckage Of The English S.S. Mediator In Curaçao
W. Nagelkerken (Stichting Marien Archeologisch Nederlandse Antillen [STIMANA]), T. van Giessen (Stichting Uniek Curaçao, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles), R. Hayes and D. Knepper (Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS), Washington, DC, USA) Riddles in the Dark: A Behavioral Interpretation of a Submerged 16th Century Archaeological Context
Vera Moya Sordo (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática, México)
Submerged Prehistoric Caves In Quintana Roo, Mexico. Study Of The Early Inhabitants Through Underwater Archaeology
Arturo H. González González, Carmen Rojas Sandoval, Octavio del Río Lara, Pilar Luna Erreguerena (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática) and Adriana Velázquez Morlet (Centro INAH Quintana Roo) The Shipwreck of Nuestra Señora del Juncal: Storms, Divine Punishment and Human Errors
Flor Trejo Rivera (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática, México)
Mayan Mortuary Deposits In The Cenotes Of Yucatan And Quintana Roo, Mexico
Carmen Rojas Sandoval, Arturo H. González González, Octavio del Río Lara, Pilar Luna Erreguerena (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática) and Adriana Velázquez Morlet (Centro INAH Quintana Roo) Don Pancho’s site: an 18th Century British Shipwreck
Roberto Enrique Galindo Domínguez (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática, México)
Maritime Archaeology And Underwater Cultural Heritage In Argentina: Ongoing Work At The Instituto Nacional De Antropologia Y Pensamiento Latinoamericano
Dolores Elkin New Studies about the Possible Location of Nuestra Señora del Juncal through the Nautical Charts and the Measurement Systems of the XVII Century
Carmen Rojas Sandoval, Pilar Luna Erreguerena, Arturo González (INAH/Subdirección de Arqueología Subacuática México)
Arqueología Marítimo-Fluvial Del Río De La Plata
Antonio Lezama (PROGRAMA DE ARQUEOOGIA SUBACUATICA, Departamento de Arqueología, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay) The Cayman Islands’ Experience: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Margaret Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands National Museum) and Della Scott-Ireton (Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research)
Development Of Underwater Heritage Preservation At Bermuda
Edward Harris (Executive Director, Bermuda Maritime Museum) The Cayman Islands’ Experience: Research, an Inventory, Fieldwork, Conservation, the Museum, a Maritime Heritage Trail and the Law
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands National Museum)
The Historical Anchorage Of Kralendijk, Bonaire, Including The Wreckage Of The Dutch Brigantine Sirene (1831)
W. Nagelkerken (Stichting Marien Archeologisch Nederlandse Antillen (STIMANA), Curaçao, N.A.) and R. Hayes (Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS), Washington, DC, USA) The role of benthic communities and environmental agents in the evolution and conservation of underwater archaeological sites
Ricardo Bastida (CONICET, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas (UNMdP), Argentina, Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Monica Grosso (Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Dolores Elkin (CONICET, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas (UNMdP), Argentina, Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Development And Implementation Of Organic Polymer Preservation Techniques For Artifacts From Port Royal, Jamaica
C. Wayne Smith (Department of Anthropology , Texas A&M University , USA) Port Royal, Jamaica: Archaeological Past, Present and Future
Donny L. Hamilton (Nautical Archaeology Program,Texas A& M University, USA)

Session Time
Day Wednesday & Thursday Date 25th & 26th June
Time 9am-1pm & 4-6pm (Wed Room No Details Available

Avocational Involvement In Underwater Archaeology

Organized By
Robyn Woodward (Canada)and Ray Hayes (MAHS)

Session Details
Robyn Woodward (Canada) rwoodward@shaw.ca
Ray Hayes (MAHS) rhayes@Howard.edu

Robyn Woodward (Canada)
Robyn Woodward is the past President and Executive member of the Underwater Archaeological Society of British Columbia (UASBC). The Society conducts shipwreck inventories, searches out prehistoric aboriginal sites and discover the resting place of some of the more than 2,000 ships and train wrecks which have sunk either along the rugged coast of British Columbia rugged coast or extensive inland waterways. Robyn is a member of the Society for Historical Archaeology’s Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology and chairs the Board of Governors at the Vancouver Maritime Museum. She holds an MA from Texas A & M and was a research Associate of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Robyn is currently excavating an early 16th century sugar mill in Jamaica as part of the requirements for her Ph.D. in Archaeology at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia. She has participated in fieldwork in the Caribbean, Turkey and Canada and has written numerous articles and presented papers at conferences in North America and Europe on underwater archaeology and sub-sea technology. Robyn lectures part-time through the Department of Classical Studies and Continuing Education at the University of British Columbia and the Department of Archaeology at Simon Fraser University.

Ray Hayes (MAHS)
Ray Hayes, Ph.D., is a trained and experienced volunteer underwater archaeologist who is currently Vice President of the Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS) of Washington, DC. He is an Associate Member of the Advisory Council for Underwater Archaeology (ACUA) and also a member of the Standards and Ethics Committee of the Society for Historical Archaeology. He serves on the Board of Directors for the Foundation for Marine Archaeology of the Netherlands Antilles (STIMANA) and has just co-authored an archeological study of the historical anchorage at Kralendijk Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, with Dr. Wil Nagelkerken. Ray is a marine biomedical scientist, an accomplished teacher, and a medical administrator. He chaired the Department of Anatomy for 14 years, and is now Assistant Dean for Medical Education at the Howard University College of Medicine. Dr. Hayes is a professional anatomist with numerous research publications on connective tissue disease as well as on the histo-pathology and skeletogenesis of scleractinian corals. He has been a NAUI SCUBA instructor for more than thirty years. As MAHS project coordinator, he has led teams of volunteers on underwater archaeological surveys in Londontown, MD, to Anguilla (BWI), as well as to both Curacao and Bonaire (NA).

Session rationale
With the ratification of UNESCO’s Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, cultural ministries of many governments are now facing expanded mandates with neither the resources, or trained personnel to meet their responsibilities. The role of avocational underwater archaeological organizations and societies in promoting local stewardship and training will be of fundamental importance. This session will focus on education of avocationals and the role they have played in the discovery, documentation, and interpretation of maritime sites. Participants will include members of avocational societies and training organizations. In addition to the 20-minute slide illustrated papers and panel discussion, the organizers of this session have arranged for the Nautical Archaeology Society to conduct a three-day training session following the conference. Developed in the UK, the NAS training scheme is generally regarded as the standard for working on underwater archaeological projects worldwide. This session will include a one-day introduction to the NSA program and a two-day instructor’s training. While open to all conference attendees, the enrollment in the training session will be limited to 30 participants.


Tom Beasley Canada tbeasley@intergate.ca
Steve Anthony USA santhonypc@mindspring.com
Ray Hayes USA rhayes@Howard.edu
Joel Gilman Australia joelgilman@hotmail.com
Mark Norder USA mnorder@aol.com
Robyn Woodwrd Canada rwoodward@shaw.ca
Chris Underwood UK chris@nasportsmouth.org.uk
Lynn Harris USA nautical@charleston.net
William J. Winkler Sr., USA treasurequestshoppe@earthlink.net
Philip Robertson Scotland lochaline.divecentre@virgin.net
John Gribble South Africa jgribble@sahra.org.za
Aidan Ash Australia aidan_ash@hotmail.com
Distance Education Of Avocational Divers Through The Maritime Archaeological And Historical Society’s “Dive Into History” Videotaped Course And Field School Video
S. Anthony and R. Hayes (Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS),
Washington, DC. USA) Volunteer Fieldwork at a Shipwreck Precinct: Hamelin Bay, Western Australia
Joel Gilman (Secretary, Maritime Archaeological Association of Western Australia (MAAWA), Perth, Australia)
Towards Cooperative Archaeology: Maritime Archaeological Research Initiative
Mark Norder (Maritime Archaeological Research Initiative, USA) Education versus Legislation: Leadership in Advocacy
Robyn P. Woodward (Past President – Underwater Archaeological Society of British Columbia (UASBC), Vancouver, B.C. Canada)
Diving With A Purpose
Chris Underwood (Project Director- Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS), Portsmouth, England) International Project Participation by Avocational Teams from the Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society
S. Anthony and R. Hayes (Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS)
Washington, DC, USA)
Beach Plum Island Project
William J. Winkler Sr. (Delaware Marine Archaeological Society, USA) Visitors Welcome ! – Diving on Scotland’s Historic Shipwrecks
Philip Robertson (NAS Training Officer, Lochaline Dive Center, Scotland)
Avocational Involvement In Underwater Heritage Management In South Africa

Jaco Boshoff (Maritime Archaeologist, IZIKO Museums of Cape Town) and John Gribble (Maritime Archaeologist, South African Heritage Resources Agency)

The Star of Greece Project – An Amateur Underwater Survey of a Wreck Site in South Australia
Aidan Ash (Project Director, Star of Greece Project, Department of Archaeology, Flinders University, Australia), John Cooper and David Cowan (Society for Underwater Historical Research, Australia)

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 9am-1pm & 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Regional Surveys: The Problem And Potential Of Preliminary Data

Organized By
Larry Babits (USA), Lynn Harris (USA), John Gribble (South Africa)

Session Details
Lynn Harris (USA) nautical@charleston.net
John Gribble (South Africa) jgribble@sahra.org.za

Lynn Harris (USA)
Dr. Lynn Harris serves as an Underwater Archaeologist and the Manager of the Charleston Underwater Archaeology Division (UAD) Field Office for the South Carolina Institute of Anthropology and Archaeology (SCIAA) at the University of South Carolina. The UAD governs access and disturbance of submerged cultural materials and sites through the implementation of progressive legislation and a licensing program. UAD staff conduct statewide regional surveys utilizing remote sensing technologies and traditional investigation techniques to inventory and assess submerged sites. Through public education programs specifically designed to meet South Carolina’s management needs, the UAD advocates responsible stewardship of submerged cultural resources. The UAD has also established two maritime heritage trails, a shipwreck diving trail and a shipwreck canoe trail, each on local rivers near the coastal city of Charleston. Lynn is a member of the Society for Historical Archaeology. She earned a Masters degree from the Program in Maritime History and Underwater Archaeology at East Carolina University and a Doctoral degree at the University of South Carolina. She worked previously as a terrestrial archaeologist for the South African Museum and was hired by the University of South Carolina subsequent to obtaining her masters degree. Lynn has been employed by SCIAA for eleven years. She designs underwater archaeology field training courses and workshops for the public; initiates heritage tourism endeavors; directs site assessment and fieldwork projects such as river surveys; and offers an internship program for undergraduate students through the Field Office. She has participated in a variety of underwater archaeology projects around the world in South Africa, Australia, Bermuda, and Thailand. In 1995 she was invited back to South Africa for a one year consultancy to start a shipwreck inventory and lay the groundwork for a national education program to promote maritime archaeology for the National Monuments Council (now the South African Heritage Resources Agency).

John Gribble (South Africa)
John Gribble is the Maritime Archaeologist at the South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA), the national statutory body tasked with managing and conserving cultural heritage in South Africa. He is responsible for the management of underwater heritage throughout the country. This involves maintaining an inventory of South Africa’s historical shipwrecks, administering SAHRA’s wreck permit system, carrying out wreck surveys and site recording, and running programmes to promote maritime archaeology and wreck conservation in South Africa. John has a Masters degree in archaeology from the University of Cape Town. He has extensive past fieldwork experiences working on a wide range of terrestrial sites, both prehistoric and historic, around South Africa. John is currently an associate member of the ICOMOS International Committee on Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICUCH), and Secretary of the South African Association of Archaeologists. In his capacity as Maritime Archaeologist at SAHRA he led the South African delegations to the UNESCO meetings in Paris which resulted in the newly adopted UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.

Session rationale
Systematic surveys are an integral component of submerged cultural resource management strategies whether projects are conducted by a resource agency, contract archaeologist, avocational society, research group, or university program. Underwater archaeology entities around the world have evolved in different ways in developing their inventory and assessment plans. In sum, a large amount of time and resources within the specialization of underwater archaeology are devoted simply to the important task of gathering preliminary data on multiple sites rather than long term excavation projects on a single site.

This session will address the main issues and teething problems experienced by various entities in developing regional survey plans, and basic questions like fieldwork funding, juggling survey project logistics and identifying viable partnerships. Plus, it will explore a wide range of more specific archaeological inquiries such as determining discernable patterns in site locations and formation processes, management and theoretical problems and potentials in dealing with sites with diverse historical affiliations, ways to combine terrestrial and underwater projects, and more challenging issues related to assigning local, national or international archaeological significance to sites or areas based on preliminary data. The papers will cover a cross-section of regions and resources. They will range from riparian to lacustrine and coastal environments, from potsherd scatters to vernacular small craft and oceangoing vessels.

Session format
Participants papers previously posted on the WAC-5 Website. Six abbreviated ten-minute presentations of posted papers followed by a two-hour discussion.


Presenters and participants should be involved in planning or executing regional surveys of submerged sites that encompass a more unified outlook towards cultural resource management. They may also include presentations about surveys that integrate terrestrial resources or themes with those of submerged resources. Participants may be involved with regional survey planning at a very early stage of development or be a more established entity with a variety of fieldwork and management experiences to share. Participants will hopefully be from Europe, USA, Africa, Australia, Canada, and Asia among others.

Wes Forsythe (Northern Ireland)
Sue Vezeau (USA)
Steve Schmidt (USA) Steve.Schmidt@navy.mil
Understanding Irish Shipwrecks: Documentary And Underwater Surveys
Wes Forsythe (Centre for Maritime Archaeology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Ulster, Ireland) Undersea Cultural Treasures and Hazards: The Pacific Coast Maritime Archaeological Summary
Sue Vezeau (Submerged Cultural Resource Coordinator, Santa Barbara Maritime Museum, California, USA)
The National Survey Of Underwater Cultural Heritage – An Inventory Of South Africa’s Maritime Cultural Resources
John Gribble (Maritime Archaeologist, South African Heritage Resources Agency, South Africa) Large-scale Survey of US Navy Wrecks off Normandy, France
James Steve Schmidt (Underwater Archaeologist, Underwater Archaeology Branch, Naval Historical Center, Washington DC. USA)
Excavating And Preserving Cubas Submerged Cultural Patrimony Facing The
Challenges Of Isolation And Financial Hardship
Dr. John de Bry (Center for Historical Archaeology) Systematic Survey of Underwater Archaeological Sites in the Egadi Archipelago
Nicolo Bruno and Sebastiano Tusa (Direttore del Servizio per i Beni Archeologici, Soprintendenza per i Beni Culturali ed Ambientali della Regione Sicilia, Trapani, Italy)

Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 9-11am & 4-6pm Room No Details Available

UNESCO Convention For The Protection Of Underwater Cultural Heritage – Legislative Aspects

Organized By
Anne Giesecke (USA), Patrick O’Keefe (Australia)

Session Details
Anne Giesecke (USA)
Graduating college in the 1960’s, Anne received a Bachelor of Arts in History and a Master in Education from Boston University. She has a Master of Arts in Anthropology from the State University of New York at Binghamton and a Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology and Archaeology from the Catholic University of America in Washington DC. Since 1977 she has held positions as high school teacher, college and university faculty member and field archaeologist. She has been diving since 1979. Anne was employed by the Department of the Interior and the Environmental Protection Agency from 1980 to 1991. She drafted the Abandoned Shipwreck Act in 1982 and followed it until it became law in 1988. During the period 1983 to 1985, on detail from the Department of the Interior, she provided staff support to the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee of the United States House of Representatives. Assignments included historic shipwrecks, environmental credits, artificial reefs, and off shore oil and gas leasing. Anne is the author of more than sixty articles related to resource management and published in a variety of law reviews and environmental journals, and has contributed to several books. Since 1987 she has been an elected member of the Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology for the Society for Historical Archaeology. Since 1991 Anne has been an advisor to the International Law Association effort to draft the International Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage; she attended the Paris meetings 1998-2001. Anne is a member of the International Council on Monuments and Sites and participates on the archaeology and legal committees. She is Legislative Director of the Underwater Society of America and prepares a legislative report on clean water and maritime legislation. Anne is a member of the Marine Technology Society and frequent presenter. She is a member of the Adventure Board of Advisors and the Expeditions Council for the National Geographic Magazine.

Patrick O’Keefe (Australia)
Patrick J. O’Keefe has worked for 30 years on legal instruments to protect underwater cultural heritage. As an official at the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs he took part in negotiation of the Agreement between the Netherlands and Australia Concerning Old Dutch Shipwrecks in 1971. In the late 1970’s, while at the University of Sydney, he co-authored two reports on which Council of Europe Recommendation 848 was based, leading to the Draft European Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. He was foundation Chairman of the Committee of the International Law Association, which prepared a draft convention that became the basis for early discussion in UNESCO. At the same time he was legal counsel to the committee within the Council of Europe which prepared the European Convention on Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised) 1992. O’Keefe was an invited expert at the UNESCO Meeting of Experts in 1996 in Paris and, as an observer, attended all four meetings of governmental experts drafting the UNESCO Convention. He has written many articles and drafted legislation on legal protection of underwater cultural heritage. He is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London.

Session rationale
The Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage was adopted by the 31st General Conference of UNESCO and signed by its President and the Director-General of UNESCO on 6 November 2001. States can now become party to it by depositing with UNESCO a document of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Drafters of the Convention had to confront many complex legal issues arising from State jurisdiction; finds; control over remains of State owned vessels; trade in objects removed from underwater sites as well as the conduct of archaeological excavation. The problems were compounded but the perception that States often had agendas other than the protection of the underwater cultural heritage. The resulting document is heavily influenced by the compromises adopted. It means that States Party will have to co-operate extensively for it to work effectively. It is essential that archaeologists and administrators of underwater cultural heritage are aware of this fact and the extent to which they will have to actively understand how the Convention is intended to operate.

Session Format
There will be four papers by persons who were actively involved in various capacitates in the preparation of the Convention. These will be followed by other papers by persons who have followed the development of the Convention. After coffee there will be a 1.5 hour general discussion by presenters and the audience.

Sarah Dromgoole (UK) skd2@leicester.ac.uk
Craig Forrest (Australia) c.forrest@law.uq.edu.au
Anne Giesecke (USA) agiesecke@americanbakers.org
Patrick O ‘Keefe (Australia) ockiff@bigpond.com
Lyndel Prott (Australia) lvprott@bigpond.com
Joel Gilman (Australia) joelgilman@hotmail.com
Steve Yormak (Canada) yormaklaw@aol.com
Patrick O’Keefe (Australia) UNESCO Convention 2001: What the Convention means for the United Kingdom
Sarah Dromgoole
The UCH Convention And The Illicit Traffic In Cultural Heritage
Craig Forrest (TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland, Australia) Politics
Anne Giesecke
International Law
Lyndell Prott A Comparison of the Law of UCH Protection in Australia and the United States
Joel Gilman (L.L.M. Candidate, University of Western Australia School of Law)
The Private Sector Salvor View
Steve Yormak

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 9am-1pm & 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Implementation Of The UNESCO Annex By Regional Managers Of Underwater Archaeology Programs

Organized By
Chris Amer (USA), Victor Mastone (USA) and Brian Williams (Northern Ireland)

Session Details
In November 2001, The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage was adopted by an overwhelming majority vote. It is anticipated that the Convention will be ratified in the near future. While the Convention and its Annex identify what is the appropriate identification, evaluation and protection of underwater cultural heritage, the implementation of management regimes rests with nations, their political subdivisions and their citizens. Participants will present papers that address the issues, problems and opportunities presented by the UNESCO Convention. Papers will encompass the broad areas of regulatory framework, outreach and professional public responsibilities.

Session Format:

Seven, ten-minute abbreviated presentations or synopses of participant’s papers previously posted on the WAC-5 website, followed by a two-hour panel discussion. Discussion will focus on the ways each region is implementing the UNESCO Convention and the Annex (formerly ICOMOS Charter), identifying problems and suggesting possible solutions.
Designing A Licensing System For Maritime Archaeology: The Sri Lankan Experience
Somasiri Devendra (Maritime Archaeology, to the Director-General of Archaeology
Consultant, Avondster Project, Galle, Member, ICOMOS International Committee on the Underwater Cultural Heritage) Taking to the Water: English Heritage, the UNESCO Convention and the implications of the HMS Sussex case
Ian Oxley (Head of Maritime Archaeology, English Heritage, Portsmouth, UK )
Archaeology Underwater: Africa’s Potential And Challenges
Dr George Abungu (Director General, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya) Mexico and the UNESCO Convention
Pilar Luna Erreguerena (Subdirectora de Arqueologma Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Anthropoloma e Historio, Mexico)
Implementing The UNESCO Convention In Northern Ireland
Brian Williams (Acting Principal Inspector, Environment and Heritage Service, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK) Underwater Archaeology in Cuba Then and Now
John de Bry (Center for Historical Archaeology, Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA)
Archaeology In Alpine Lakeside Dwellings And The UNESCO Convention
Albert Hafner (Department Head of Underwater Archaeology, Archaeological Service of the Canton of Berne, Switzerland) The UNESCO Convention: The US Professional Archaeological Community’s Response
Christopher Amer, Victor Mastone and Matthew A. Russell
Report On The UNESCO Regional Conference On The Convention On The Protection Of The Underwater Cultural Heritage, For Latin American & Caribbean States, Kingston, Jamaica, 17-20 June 2002
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton (Cayman Islands National Museum, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands)

Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 9-11am & 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Significant Issues In Underwater Archaeology: Past, Present And Future Trends

Organized By
William Jeffery (Australia) amd Roger Kelly

Session Details
William Jeffery (Australia) william.jeffery1@jcu.edu.au
Dr Roger Kelly (USA) Roger_Kelly@nps.gov

William Jeffery (Australia)
Bill Jeffery graduated from the inaugural Maritime Archaeology Graduate Diploma from Curtin University, Western Australia in 1981and since then, until 2000, has formulated and initiated a maritime archaeology program in South Australia. Lately, he has been studying for a PhD in Maritime Archaeology at James Cook University on the topic of the significance of the Truk (Chuuk) Lagoon shipwrecks. This study has been done in cooperation with the Chuuk Historic Preservation Office where he has been employed on a contract to help develop a maritime archaeology program for Chuuk. The Chuuk Lagoon Shipwrecks have often been referred to as the best shipwreck dives in the world, which led to Bill’s interest in the question of whether these shipwrecks should be listed as World Heritage Sites, and therefore the relevance and impacts this would have on the local community.

Roger Kelly (USA)
Dr Roger E. Kelly PhD. (US). Senior Archeologist – US National Park Service, Oakland, California since 1974. Involved in maritime archeological projects within US federal parks along the California coast since the early l980s. Principal Investigator for two projects attempting to locate 1595 galleon and other vessel losses within Point Reyes National Seashore, 60 km. northwest of San Francisco Bay. Organized an international and multidisciplinary conference entitled “Along the Shores of Time: Submerged Historic and Indigenous Resources in the Pacific Rim Region” (Sausalito,CA 1999) and edited a proceedings volume. In addition to field projects, he is interested in maritime heritage tourism and role of replica vessels in public education.

Session rationale

The aim of this session is to consider and compare past and present projects and issues related to underwater archaeology, and to consider future trends. Underwater archaeology began in many countries through a number of research and excavation projects. Today, there are many more players and groups participating in the profession and they bring into it a number of different practices and requirements. Different countries, with a mixture of indigenous and non-indigenous citizens resulting in various site types, can have different views and needs in terms of managing their underwater cultural heritage.

In addition to comparing past and present projects and issues to see where and why trends have developed, some of the significant developments and issues in underwater archaeology will be discussed, including:

Cultural Tourism
Educational programs
World Heritage listing
Marine sanctuaries
Managing cultural landscapes
In-situ preservation
Excavation: Research or Management tool?


Joel Gilman (Australia) joelgilman@hotmail.com
John Broadwater (USA) John.Broadwater@noaa.gov
Paul Mardikian (USA) mardikian@HUNLEY.ORG
Barbara Voulgaris (USA) Barbara.Voulgaris@navy.mil
Roger Kelly (USA) Roger_Kelly@nps.gov
Bill Jeffery (Australia) Jeffery.Bill@saugov.sa.gov.au

Larry Murphy (USA) larry_murphy@nps.gov
Sallamaria Tikkanen (Finland) sallamaria.tikkanen@nba.fi
Ian Oxley: (UK) ian.oxley@english-heritage.org.uk
‘Road Lego’ – A Unique Approach To Management Of Shallow Wreck Sites Coming From An Understanding Of Coastal And In-situ Processes
Trevor Winton (Archaeology Department, Flinders University, Australia) Should shipwrecks be listed on the World Heritage List ?: Considering the case of the Truk Lagoon Underwater Cultural Heritage sites
Bill Jeffery (James Cook University, Townsville, Australia)
Experimental Archaeology: Recreating The Hull Of The SS XANTHO
Joel Gilman (Univ. of Western Australia School of Law) The United States’ National Marine Sanctuary Program: A Model for Protecting and Managing Underwater Cultural Heritage
John D. Broadwater (Manager, Monitor National Marine Sanctuary)
Protecting U.S. Navy Historic Ship And Aircraft Wrecks Worldwide: Unique Challenges In Cultural Resource Management.
Barbara A. Voulgaris (Cultural Resources Manager, Underwater Archaeology Branch) World Heritage Sites in the United States
Anne Giesecke
[Yet To Come]
Sallamaria Tikkannen [Yet to come]
Ian Oxley
Circumnavigating The USA In The 15 Year-old Sloop ASA
Roger E. Kelly and Michele Aubry (National Park Service, Oakland, California USA) H.L. Hunley, An American Civil War Submarine: Conservation and Management Out of the Water
Paul Mardikian (Senior Conservator, Hunley Project, Warren Lasch Conservation Center, Charleston Naval Base, South Carolina, USA)
Imperial Rome’s Maritime Architectural Revolution
Robert L. Hohlfelder (University of Colorado, Boulder, USA), John P. Oleson (University of Victoria, Canada) and Chris Brandon, Nautical Archaeology Society, UK)

Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 9-11am & 4-6PM Room No Details Available

Underwater Archaeology In The Public Sphere

Organized By
Annalies Corbin (USA) and Marc-Andre Bernier

Session Details
Marc-Andre Bernier (Canada) Marc-Andre_Bernier@pch.gc.ca

Annalies Corbin (USA)
Dr Annalies Corbin specializes in nautical archaeology, material culture, and western history and is a specialist in inland river transportation and immigration. Since 1999 she has directed numerous field schools across the U.S. In 2001 she had a student field crew (high school students from Nebraska) working on the Marshall Hotel site in Yellowstone National Park. The Marshall hotel is the oldest tourist hotel within the boundaries of the park. In Oklahoma sha directed a university field school in nautical archaeology for the University of Indiana and the P.A.S.T. Foundation. In August 2001 she joined the faculty at ECU and was involved with the Maritime Programs fall field semester in Wisconsin. With Dr. Bradley Rodgers, she instructed the graduate students in the excavation of a scow schooner site in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. In 2000 her first book was published, The Material Culture of Steamboat Passengers: Archaeological Evidence from the Missouri River (Klewer/Plenum Academic Press, New York). She has recently contributed several chapters for edited works including the upcoming, The Handbook for Underwater Archaeology (IP 2002) and Historical Archaeology in Missouri (IP University of Alabama Press, 2003) and articles in Historical Archaeology, IJNA, Discovering Archaeology, and Underwater Archaeology. She is a Board Member of the Journal of Northwest Anthropology (JONA), the Advisory Council of Underwater Archaeology (ACUA), and book review editor for Historical Archaeology.

Marc-Andre Bernier (Canada)
Marc-André Bernier is a Senior Underwater Archaeologist for the Parks Canada Agency for which he has worked since 1990. Previous to his work at parks Canada, he was involved in contract work in underwater archaeology in France. With Parks Canada he has directed and co-directed numerous projects including the excavation of the Elizabeth and Mary (1690), multiple survey projects in the Saguenay/St Lawrence Marine Park, survey of the Corossol (1693), and survey of the Lake Minnewanka 19th-century submerged town-site. Through his work with Parks or in collaboration with other organizations in North America and abroad, he has touched upon a variety of other sites ranging from prehistoric and medieval fish weirs, 16th-century shipwrecks, 19th-century Great Lakes vessels, and a 7th-century coastal vessel. Marc-André Bernier is particularly interested in the transmission of underwater archaeological knowledge to the public. A NAS senior tutor, he participated in a number of projects where avocational archaeologists and sport divers worked side by side with professional archaeologists, one of which, the excavation of the Elizabeth and Mary, had approximately 900 diving hours by non-professionals. He has also published general public articles and one book (Les archéologues aux pieds palmés) intended for the 9-16 years old.

Session rationale
This session will focus on the growing and changing role of public participation and education in underwater archaeology projects. With dwindling research funds, tapping into educational sources of funding and support has become an ever growing opportunity for both archaeological projects and the public. This session will include a range of participants including school teachers, archaeologists from universities, states, the private sector, museums and so on who will discuss the variety of public programs that each has developed for making underwater archaeology more accessible to the public and in the classroom. Each participant will give a 10 minute slide presentation highlighting their project. This will be followed by an open round table discussion with the purpose of opening a dialog and exchanging ideas on what is happening with this component of our field. One of the convenors’ main goals will be for the organization/development of a web page or list serve where information can be posted concerning opportunities for the public to participate in projects so that we can direct inquires from educators and the public, and keep up with what is happening, when, where, who, and how.

Chris Dobbs (UK)
Kelly Gleason (US Virgin Islands)
William J. Hunt, Jr. (USA)
Sara LeRoy-Toren (USA)
Della Scott-Ireton (USA) dscott@mail.dos.state.fl.us
Mark Wilde-Ramsing (USA) mark.wramsing@ncmail.net
Avner Raban (Israel)
Marc-Andre Bernier (Canada) Marc-Andre_Bernier@pch.gc.ca
Catherine Green (USA) cmgreen@whs.wisc.edu

Session Schedule:

1. Wilde-ramsing
2. Gleason
3. Hunt/Corbin/Leroy-Toren
4. Dasovich
5. Desrosiers
6. Bernier
7. Green
8. Scott-Ireton
9. Rabien
10. Dobbs

Bringing Archaeology Alive: Experimental Archaeology And The Mary Rose: Case Studies From A Museum – The Tudor Shipwright And The Mary Rose Galley Projects
Chris Dobbs (Mary Rose Trust, UK) Compelled To Run His Majesty’s Ship Ashore: The Story of the HMS Santa Monica as Historical, Cultural and Environmental Resource
Kelly Gleason
A Thermal River Classroom At The Marshall/Firehole Hotel Site, Yellowstone National Park
William J. Hunt, Jr. (National Park Service, Midwest Archaeological Center, USA), Annalies Corbin (PAST Foundation) and Sara LeRoy-Toren (Lincoln Public Schools Science Program School – Zoo School)
Florida’s Underwater Archaeological Preserves
Della Scott-Ireton (Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida, USA)
Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project
Mark Wilde-Ramsing (Director, Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck Project, USA) Presenting the Submerged Ancient Harbor at Caesarea to the Public
Prof. Avner Raban (Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Israel)
Beyond The Field Work : Pursuing The Message Of Scientific And Public Values
Marc-Andre Bernier (Parks Canada, Canada) Wisconsin’s Maritime Trails: Preservation through Public Archaeology, Maritime History, and Heritage Tourism
Catherine Green (Maritime Preservation and Archaeology Program, Wisconsin Historical Society, USA)
The Phips Project: Sharing Scientific And Public Values
Pierre Desrosiers (Laval University, Canada) Shipwrecked in Missouri
Steve Dasovich (SCI Engineering, USA)

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 9am-1pm Room Marist 208

Between The Tides: Archaeology Of The Inter-tidal Zone

Organized By
Dr. Brian Williams (Northern Ireland) and Garry Momber (England)

Session Details
Dr. Brian Williams (Northern Ireland) brian.williams@doeni.gov.uk
Garry Momber (England) hwtma@soc.soton.ac.uk

Dr Brian Williams (Northern Ireland)
Brian Williams is responsible for maritime archaeology in Northern Ireland and is Principal Inspector in the government agency Environment and Heritage Service in Belfast. He is the Joint Director of the Centre for Maritime Archaeology and Visiting Professor at the University of Ulster. Brian is a land archaeologist by background and spent 20 years involved in excavations and surveys on land in Northern Ireland before being given the maritime responsibility. He represents his agency on the Advisory Committee on Historic Wrecks and on the Joint Nautical Archaeology Policy Committee, both in London. He is a Director of the US Advisory Committee on Underwater Archaeology, is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and an Honorary Lecturer at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. He has been involved in establishing a programme of international research into the maritime archaeology of the Swahili culture on the East African coast involving the British Institute in East Africa, the National Museums of Kenya and the University of Ulster.

Garry Momber (England)
Garry Momber is the Director of the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology. The Trust is unique in the UK being established in 1991 to research maritime archaeology in and around the Solent. Before acquiring his current position, Garry worked for the Nautical Archaeological Society and as a visiting lecturer at the Universities of Southampton and Bristol. He joined the Trust as the full time Archaeological Officer in 1997 when he helped to instigate a pioneering agenda of fieldwork and research, and in January 2002 he was promoted to Trust Director. He represents the Trust at the Joint Nautical Archaeological Policy Committee, committees of the Society for Underwater Technology, Council for British Archaeology (Wessex), Solent Forum and the Standing Conference On Problems Associated with the Coastline (SCOPAC). He is a commercially qualified diver, licensee of one Protected Wreck site and Archaeological Advisor on two others and an executive committee member of the Nautical Archaeology Society.

Session rationale
The interface between the land and sea in the inter-tidal zone is a dynamic area of archaeological activity that has been little studied. Pioneering investigations mainly in Britain and Ireland have revealed evidence of a rich variety of previously unknown sites. The session is offered to provide an opportunity for papers from any region where inter-tidal work has been undertaken and to explore the issues and opportunities provided by inter-tidal investigations. The session will also look at the theme of submerged archaeological landscapes and the potential to look at archaeological sites in this wetland sea environment.

Range of papers and perspectives

Presenters of papers should have experience of inter-tidal investigations from any region and it is hoped that there will be broad coverage of the globe in the session. To participate in this session please contact the session organisers. For information about proposing and presenting papers go to http://wwwehlt.flinders.edu.au/wac5/indexhomepage.html.

Session format
Six, ten-minute abbreviated presentations or synopsis of participant’s papers previously posted on the WAC-5 website, followed by a two-hour panel discussion. Discussion will focus on the themes common throughout the ocean area.

Thomas McErlean (Northern Ireland) Tc.mcerlean@ulster.ac.uk
Garry Momber (England) hwtma@soc.soton.ac.uk
Colin Breen (Northern Ireland) cp.breen@ulster.ac.uk
Michael K. Faught (USA)
N C Flemming (England) n.flemming@soc.soton.ac.uk
Margaret Purser (USA)
Inter-tidal Archaeology In Ireland
Thomas McErlean (Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland) From the Post Medieval to the Mesolithic in a single tidal cycle
Garry Momber (Director, Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology, England)
Mombasa, Kenya: A Case Study In Foreshore Archaeology
Colin Breen (Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland) Submerged Prehistoric Sites on a Low Slope, Shallow Drowned Karst Plain in Northwest Florida
Michael K. Faugt (Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, USA)
What Questions Can Submerged Prehistoric Landscape Archaeology Answer?
N C Flemming (Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, England) Red Lantern Run: Documenting the Inland Maritime Landscape of the Sacramento Delta
Margaret Purser (Cultural Resources Management Program, Sonoma State University, USA)

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Achievable Goals: Conservation Choices For The Real World

Organized By
Judy Logan (Canada) and Betty Seifert (USA)

Session Details
Judy Logan (Canada) Judy_Logan@pch.gc.ca
Betty Seifert (USA) Seifert@dhcd.state.md.us

Judy Logan (Canada)
Judy Logan studied archaeology and English at the University of Calgary, graduating with a BA in 1971. She apprenticed as a conservation technician at Parks Canada’s Conservation Division, 1972-1981, during which time she was granted leave to attend Queen’s University Master of Art Conservation Programme, graduating with and MAC Degree in 1978. Judy joined the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) in 1981 as a conservator in the Archaeology laboratory, and is presently Senior Conservator, Archaeology, Conservation Processes and Materials Research Division, CCI

Betty Seifert (USA)
Betty Seifert studied chemistry, library science and mathematics at The Texas Woman’s University graduating with a BA and a BS in 1962. She attended Rutgers-The State University finishing a MLS in 1964. In 1976 she began work at the Maine State Museum as a conservation technician working on the ship, Defence. She left in 1982 to supervise the Groton, MA laboratory for the conservation of the Ronson Ship and began work on the clipper ship Snow Squall. In 1989 Betty went to Maryland to develop a conservation facility and repository for the State of Maryland’s archaeological collections. She is currently Deputy Director of this facility.

Session Rationale:
As archaeological excavations expand around the world, so do the challenges of conserving the artifacts and sites being investigated. Conservation can be a resource-hungry part of archaeological research, but is critical to the survival of the objects and sites so that they can be studied and re-investigated in the future. While many nations may not have the resources to conserve their heritage, experience shows that “first aid” and initial stabilization during the excavation can alleviate many conservation issues, and lead to easier long-term solutions. This session is proposed to bring together conservation and archeological professionals to share experience in treating artifacts during and immediately after the excavation, in order to minimize the damage to the artifacts, and reduce the amount of treatment needed later to stabilize them for study.

Session Format:
A key-note speaker (Judy Logan) will introduce the topic with a general paper on the theme. A panel of conservation professionals (currently being recruited) will then present positions papers on specialty topics such as:
• Logistical problems and acquiring conservation supplies in different parts of the world.
• How to set conservation strategies before excavation begins.
• How to accomplish good conservation treatments and stabilization with minimal facilities and resources.
• How to increase cooperation between archaeologists and conservators.
• Disseminating results of conservation activities.
• How to obtain training in conservation in countries with few resources for conservation.

After each specialty paper, input and questions from the audience will be solicited, and the entire panel will be encouraged to share their experience, and try to provide practical solutions for the audience’s problems.

The key-note paper would take 20 minutes, and each position paper thereafter another 20 minutes. Questions and answers would be another 30 minutes per topic. If the panel is restricted to 4-5 experts, the session should take about 4.5 hours.
Judy Logan (Canada) Judy_Logan@pch.gc.ca
Betty Seifert (USA) Seifert@dhcd.state.md.us
Claire Peachy (USA) Claire.peachey@navy.mil
Jessica Johnson (USA) JohnsonJS@nmaicrc.si.edu
Melba J. Myers (USA) mmyers@dhr.state.va.us
Howard Wellman (USA) wellman@dhcd.state.md.us
Teresita Kessler (Argentina)
María Piñeyro (Argentina)
Dolores Elkin (Argentina)
Néstor G. González (USA) nestor@hunley.org
Philippe de Viviés (USA) devivies@hunley.org
Michael J. Drews (USA) dmichae@clemson.edu
Paul Mardikian (USA) mardikian@hunley.org


The day after the Conference:
* Demonstration of packing and mounting materials.
* Discussion of Burial Environments
* Lunch
* Hands on lifting exercise.
* Decision tree – spots tests
* Analysis of organics, ie wood etc with a hand lens.
Conservation In The Field: Achievable Goals
Judith A. Logan (Senior Conservator, Archaeology, Canadian Conservation Institute, Canada) Spread the Word: Informing the Public and Our Peers about Conservation.
Jessica Johnson (National Museum of the American Indian, Cultural Resources Center, USA)
How To Accomplish Good Conservation Treatments And Stabilization With Minimal Facilities And Resources
Melba J. Myers (Archaeological Conservator, Virginia Department of Historic Resources, USA) Logistical problems and acquiring conservation supplies for different parts of the world.

Betty L. Seifert (Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory, Maryland, USA)
Health And Safety In A Field Conservation Laboratory
Howard Wellman (Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory, Maryland, USA) Field conservation on underwater sites
Claire Peachey (Naval Historical Center, Underwater Archaeology Conservation Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard, Washington DC, USA)
Basic Electrochemical Experiments With Copper And Iron Samples In Relation To Underwater Archaelogy
Teresita Kessler (Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), María Eugenia Piñeyro (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) and Dolores Elkin (CONICET and Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Hunting Free and Bound Chloride in the Cast and Wrought Iron From the Hunley
Néstor G. González, Philippe de Viviés, Michael J. Drews and Paul Mardikian

Session Time
Day Wednesday Date 25th June
Time 9am-1pm Room No Details Available

Keynote Speakers

Organized By
Mark Staniforth and Dolores Elkin

Session Details
“The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage”
Robert Grenier (Canada)
Chair – ICOMOS Committee on Underwater Cultural Heritage

“America’s National Maritime Heritage Initiative”
Professor Tim Runyan (USA)
Maritime Studies Program, East Carolina University

“Archaeology of Civil War Submarine H.L. Hunley”
Dr Robert Neyland (USA)
The Hunley Project, Naval Historical Centre

This special session will also include a presentation to Toni Carrell (Ships of Discovery) who has been inducted into the Women Divers Hall of Fame.


Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 11.30AM-1PM Room Pryzbyla Center A