Ways Of Remembering History

Convened By
Lloyd Anderson (USA), Yuri Berezkin (Russia), Lynn Teague (USA), Søren Wichman (Denmark) and Manuel Gerber

Theme Details
This theme and its sessions aim to showcase some best examples of mutual support integrating archaeology and various modes of remembering history in different cultures, whether oral traditions, rock-art, early and difficult written records, or other records not usually considered “writing”. We look for ways each source of information can supplement the other and make the other more precise. One aim is to push back the boundaries between what we consider “pre-history” and “history”, to expand the domain of what we consider at least moderately reliable history.

We seek the best examples where we can affirm some reliability of these various historical traditions, and the links between them and archaeology. But we do not assume that any particular “reader” knows how to read any of them perfectly, nor that any particular “reading” of them is true, just as we do not assume that any particular “reading” of archaeological finds is true. Rather, these sessions aim to find the best matches of oral traditions or other ways of remembering with archaeology, by learning how to read each of them better. We also aim to develop a more sophisticated and explicit toolkit for carefully handling such varied types of social memory.

These sessions will manifest respect for various traditions and peoples in the present and seek many voices now. We assume these are desirable goals that do not need discussion, and focus instead on the content of what is remembered, and on the means of strengthening our understanding of the various traditions of social and individual memory.


Lloyd Anderson
Ecological Linguistics
PO Box 15156
Washington, DC 20003
Phone (202) 547-7678
email: ecoling@aol.com


Written History And Geography In Central Mexico – Codices, Lienzos And Mapas Linked To The Ground

Organized By
John Pohl (USA) and Søren Wichman (Denmark)

Session Details
Part 1 (9:00 to 11:00 am, 22 June 2003)
Part 2 (11:30 am to 1:00 pm, 22 June 2003)

Often regarded as pictorial, the linearly read codices can be minimally read as particular written languages. This may also be true, more than we have known, of the glyphic elements in the more geographical Mapas and Lienzos, and in Aztec documents. These histories and geographies stretch from north of Mexico City to the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, and substantial histories begin at least before 900. A major purpose of this session is to make it clear just how reliable they are, and as much as possible, specific implications they have for doing archaeology.

Presentations in Part 1:
Pohl “Landscape, Performance, and History”
Anderson “Mixtec Historical Codices”
Zborover “When they were Kings”
Gutierrez “Political Geography”
Aguilar “History of the Map of Cuahtinchan”
Leibsohn “Writing the Land”

Presentations in Part 2:
van Doesburg “Writing in a Multilingual Community”
López García “Idioma Mixteco”
Just “Inter-regional Scribal Discourse”
Lacadena “Regional scribal traditions”
Wichman “Earliest Interpretations of Aztec”
Anderson “Extent of Writing to the North”


Mixtec Historical Codices As Written Language — Linear Word Order And Non-Pictorial Conventions
Lloyd Anderson (Ecological Linguistics, USA) The Political Geography of the Mixteca-Tlapaneca-Nahuatl Region of Eastern Guerrero according to the Codices of Azoy and the Palimpsest of Veinte Mazorcas
Gerardo Gutierrez
The Historicity Of The Map Of Cuauhtinchan #2 And A Man-Made Chicomoztoc Complex At Acatzingo Viejo
Manuel Aguilar, Miguel Medina Jaen and James E. Brady Writing the Land: Migration and Memory in Post-Conquest Cuauhtinchan
Dana Leibsohn (Art Department, Smith College)
Regional Scribal Traditions: Methodological Implications For The Decipherment Of Nahuatl Writing
Alfonso Lacadena (Universidad Complutense of Madrid, Spain) The Earliest Interpretations of Aztec Pictorial Manuscripts: from Glyphs to Glosses
Søren Wichmann (Dept. of General and Applied Linguistics, University of Copenhagen)
The Extent Of Writing To The North And Brief Overview
Lloyd Anderson (Ecological Linguistics, USA) Writing in a Multilingual Community. The Case of the Coixtlahuaca Lienzos.
Sebastiaan van Doesburg (Burgoa Library, Oaxaca, Mexico)
El Idioma Mixteco Y Su Uso En El Pueblo De Apoala: Sa´vi “Lenguaje Ceremonial
Maestro Ubaldo López García (Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, México) Inter-Regional Scribal Discourse between the Maya and the Mixteca-Puebla: Evidence from the Madrid Codex
Bryan R. Just (Tulane University, USA)
When They Were Kings: Cartography, History, And People Of Southeastern Oaxaca
Danny Zborover (Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary)

Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 9am-1pm Room No Details Available

Oral Tradition, Language And Archaeology In Mutual Support -Southwestern USA And Northern Mexico

Organized By
Lynn S. Teague (Tucson) and Hartman Lomawaima (Hopi)

Session Details
Part 1 (9:00 to 11:00 am, 23 June 2003)
Part 2 (11:30 am to 1:00 pm, 23 June 2003)

When we learn how to “read” or interpret oral traditions in the light of the cultures which created them, and to “read” the testimony of archaeology, there is much more consistency between these two kinds of information. Learning how to “read” oral traditions also in the best cases leads to finding mutual supports among them, strengthening the case for the validity of each. This session focuses on O’odham, Hopi, and Zuni oral traditions, along with those of some of their neighbors, and on the archaeological Hohokam, Hopi, and Zuni and some of their neighbours.

Presentations in Part 1:
Lynn S. Teague
David Shaul
Jane Hill
Todd Bostwick
Hartman Lomawaima
Wesley Bernardini

Presentations in Part 2:
Smory Sekaquaptewa & Dorothy Washburn
Kelley Hays-Gilpin
Laurie Webster
Veletta Canouts
Peter Nabokov (Discussant)

Using Cognitive Semantics To Relate Mesa Verde Archaeology To Modern Pueblo Languages
Scott G. Ortman (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center) Reconstructing the O’odham and Pee Posh Past: Tradition, History, and Archaeology
Lynn S. Teague (Retired, Arizona State Museum, USA)
Language As Testimony Of Prehistoric Culture Contact Among Hopi, Zuni, And Piman
David Shaul (Library of Tohono O’odham Nation, USA) The Uto-Aztecan Presence in the U.S. Southwest: The Evidence from Language
Jane H. Hill (University of Arizona, USA)
The Hopi Documentary History Project, A Progress Report
Hartman Lomawaima (Interim Director Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA) Bringing Hopi Traditional Knowledge into the Theory and Practice of Archaeology
Wesley Bernardini (Adjunct Professor, Arizona State University, USA)
Ritual Songs As Oral Tradition
Emory Sekaquaptewa (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona) and Dorothy Washburn (Arizona State Museum, Tucson, USA) Braided Histories in Pueblo Rock Art, Murals, and Pottery
Kelley Hays-Gilpin (Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University, USA)
Hopi Textiles And Basketry As Archives Of Traditional Histories
Laurie Webster (Visiting Scholar, University of Arizona, USA) and Micah Loma’omvaya, (Anthropological Consultant, Songoopavi Village) Re-Interpreting Oral Histories in Public Places
Veletta Canouts (Ventura Consulting Services, and Research Collaborator, Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education, USA)
Exploring Communications From The Past In The Sonoran Desert, Arizona — Comparing Hohokam Rock Art Iconography And Ceramic Designs
Todd Bostwick (Archaeologist, City of Phoenix, Arizona, USA)

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 9am-1pm Room No Details Available

Legend Motif Distributions On A Continental Scale -Tools For Analysis, Links With Archaeology And Iconography

Organized By
Yuri Berezkin (Russia) and Lloyd Anderson (USA).

Session Details
The Distribution of Traditional Narratives can be studied on a continental scale. In some cases, entire tales are shared between distinct peoples, which must imply common inheritance or borrowing. When only motifs are shared, explanations are more difficult. But multivariate analysis of the distributions of hundreds of motifs can be a basis for drawing some conclusions. We compare hypotheses derived in this way with results from other fields such as linguistics, anthropology, and biogeography.

Northern Parallels In Southern Athabascan Folklore
Yuri Berezkin (Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia) Techniques for estimating shared inheritance vs. chance resemblance of legend motifs
Lloyd Anderson (Ecological Linguistics, USA)
Folklore Parallels Between Central Algonquians And The Peoples Of The Plateau
Yuri Berezkin (Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia) Otherworld Dragons in Ethnography and Archaeology of Eastern North America
F. Kent Reilly III
Motifs Shared Between The Southeastern USA And The Maya
Yuri Berezkin (Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia) Rock Art Depictions of Ancient Legends or Beliefs in Siberia and North America
Alice Tratebas (BLM, Wyoming, USA)
Central Eurasian – North American Folklore Links: Areal Correlation Of A Series Of Motifs
Yuri Berezkin (Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Session Time
Day Monday Date 23rd June
Time 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Mayan & Mespotamian Written Records Confirmations & Checks On Validity

Organized By
Manuel Gerber (Switzerland) and Marc Zender (Canada)

Session Details
With ancient written records, there are of course multiple problems of interpretation in cultures foreign to us. This session presents successes and problems in two parts of the world, with particular emphasis on the level of detail which can and cannot be filled in, and questions of reliability of interpretation. The goal is to be able to use more of the information which has been preserved down to our times, to recover parts of history.

Historiography And The Classic Maya Monumental Tradition
Simon Martin (UK) From Celestial Divination to Horoscopes: Extracting Datable Correlates of Cultural Change in Cuneiform Historiographic Texts, ca. 700-400 BCE.

Manuel Gerber (University of Berne, Switzerland), with a contribution to analysis by L. Anderson
Systems Of Month Mounting In Classic Mayan Lunar Calendars
John Justeson (SUNY Albany, USA) Recent Work on the Historical Geography of Old Babylonian Sites in the Khabur Basin
Doug Frayne (University of Toronto, Canada)
The Place Of Toponyms In Studies Of Ancient Maya Sociopolitical History
Marc Zender (University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

Session Time
Day Sunday Date 22nd June
Time 4-6pm Room No Details Available

Andean History From Non-Cuzco-Centric Sources

Organized By
Juha Hiltunen (Finland) and Lloyd Anderson (USA)

Session Details
Though relatively less studied, there are numerous sources for history of the Andes independent of the Inka capital in Cuzco. Our goal is to make some progress in linking or validating parts of these sources. Materials include parts of Blas Valera’s work, Montesinos book II (source possibly from Quito), and various “provincial” documents. Chanka history is still in archives. There are continuing discoveries in coastal archaeology such as the Moche which can be linked with records from early chroniclers.

Separating Invention From Possible Inherited Traditions In The Chronicle Of Montesinos
Juha Hiltunen (Docent for Native American Studies, University of Oulu, Finland) Discussion: Perspectives on Hiltunen’s Hypotheses
Lloyd Anderson (Ecological Linguistics, USA)
Risk Management On The North Coast Of Peru In The 13th Century AD: Coping With Extreme Events [Ethnographic & Archaeological Perspectives On El Nino Disasters]
Patricia Netherly (Dept. of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, USA)

Session Time
Day Wednesday Date 25th June
Time 9-11am Room No Details Available