forum unesco Newcastle University

Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century. Cultural Landscapes, Laws, Management, and Public Participation: Heritage as a challenge of citizenship

An Inter-Congress of the World Archaeological Congress

Forum UNESCO – University and Heritage is a worldwide network of universities created in 1995 by the Culture Sector of UNESCO. It is currently managed by the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), Spain, jointly with the World Heritage Centre of UNESCO.

The Forum UNESCO network aims to share the experience and expertise of its members and to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of heritage in a spirit of solidarity and inter-cultural dialogue.

The network also aims to link together over 400 universities and their staff and students with researchers and heritage professionals in the multiple cross-cutting disciplines related to cultural and natural heritage.

Forum UNESCO comprises a number of joint activities such as team research projects, regional and national workshops, international seminars and conferences, students associations and youth fieldwork (summer universities and/or conservation field projects), publications, etc.

The Forum UNESCO University and Heritage 10th International conference was hosted by the International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies (ICCHS) at Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, between 11th and 16th April 2005.

Forum UNESCO and Newcastle University are particularly pleased that this 10th conference was designated an Inter-Congress of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC).

The Seminar was also supported by the City of Newcastle, the Council for British Archaeology, and the UK branch of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS UK).

Cultural Landscapes in the 21 st Century

Cultural Landscapes, Laws, Management, and Public Participation: heritage as a challenge of citizenship

Monday 11th to Saturday 16th April 2005

Humans have always interacted with their environment and helped to create and modify the landscapes in which they live. The last decade or so has seen not only a significant increase in the scope and in some instances, speed of such developments, but also of our appreciation and understand of these changes. These range from the suggested impact of global warming, through localised changes in agricultural practice and a variety of forms of economic exploitation, fronted perhaps by developments in tourism, to developments in how landscapes are viewed and studied academically. These, and many other developments, have led to the increased management of landscapes and to more extensive formal protection within national and regional laws. Some argue this has been at the expense of local community interaction with, and control over, their own local environments.

This conference looked at landscapes in all of their possible manifestations, through a wide variety of academic disciplines and through the voices of some of those who live and interact with landscapes. It investigated the supposed division between cultural and natural landscapes and questioned the value of this division. The conference was arranged around seven major themes (see below).

The conference proceedings (abstracts and papers) have been published electronically online at:

Thematic areas

1. Cultural Landscapes, Museums and Heritage (Tangible and Intangible)

  • Memory and place
  • Food and cultural landscapes
  • Music and place
  • Dance and place
  • Spiritual/religious landscapes
  • Indigenous landscapes
  • Language and place
  • Ecomuseums and cultural landscapes
  • Museums and cultural landscapes
  • Heritage sites and cultural landscapes
  • Archaeological heritage as cultural landscape
  • Natural Heritage and cultural landscapes

2. Cultural Landscapes and Visual Culture

  • art galleries/art museums and their place in the cultural landscape
  • artists and their relationship to specific locales
  • landscape as art (i.e. gardens)
  • ‘land art’ in and outside the landscape
  • permanent and temporary art interventions in the landscape
  • public art in the landscape
  • art galleries and regional/national identities
  • rock art and cultural landscapes
  • Cultural landscapes and Virtual Reality

3. Cultural Landscapes, Identities, and Communities

  • landscape as a part of trans-national, national, regional, or local identity
  • cultural landscapes and cultural diversity
  • exclusion from cultural landscapes
  • public participation in landscapes
  • sustainable communities and cultural landscapes
  • conflicting uses of cultural landscapes
  • diaspora and migration within or across cultural landscapes
  • exile and concepts of “home” – taking cultural landscape with you while leaving the geographical one behind
  • place as intersection of different identities
  • Inventing new cultural landscapes and alternative conceptions of place

4. Cultural Landscapes, Tourism, and Economics

  • Landscapes as economic resource
  • Sustainability and landscapes
  • Ethics of using cultural landscapes
  • Balancing demands by tourists and locals upon cultural landscapes
  • Tourism as a means of regeneration for the landscape
  • Reinventing post-industrial landscapes as heritage landscapes
  • Heritage industry and cultural landscapes
  • Entertainment sector and its impact on cultural landscapes

5. Cultural Landscapes and Architecture

  • Cityscapes as cultural landscapes
  • Coastal landscapes
  • Rural landscapes
  • Signature buildings and cultural landscapes
  • The politics of listing architectural heritage
  • Managing historic buildings
  • Architecture and historic landscapes
  • Vernacular architecture and cultural landscapes

6. Cultural Landscapes and Education

  • Learning through cultural landscapes
  • Teaching cultural landscapes
  • Informal and formal learning systems and cultural landscapes
  • Lifelong learning and cultural landscapes
  • National curricula and cultural landscapes
  • Working with UNESCO World Heritage Education Project

7. Cultural Landscapes, Management and Protection

  • Funding cultural landscapes
  • Management plans/strategies for protecting cultural landscapes
  • Legislation and conventions (regional, national, and international)
  • Ethics and cultural landscapes
  • Governments and Cultural Landscapes
  • NGOs, International bodies and Cultural landscapes
  • Charities and the management/protection of cultural landscapes
  • Communities and their role in managing or protecting cultural landscapes
  • Managing conflicting interests/demands upon cultural landscapes
  • Issues of ownership, control, and legal/ethical rights